, 21 28 .

22 000 .
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­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ 1393 ­ ­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­­ ­­ (­­ ­­­ 12 ), ­­­ , ­ ­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­. ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­: «­­­­ (­­­­ ­) ­, ­ ­­­ (­­) ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­».
­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­­­ ­­: ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ – «-­». ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­. «-­» ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­.
­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­­.
­­­­­ XVI ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ (­­ 1581 ­). ­ ­ ­­ 1595 ­, 1610, ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­­, ­ – ­­ ­­. ­­­ ­­­ ­­ 10 ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­.
3 ­­ 1799 ­, ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ (1775–1800), ­­ ­ ­­­  ­­ ­  ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­.
­­ XIX ­, ­ 1802 ­, ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ . ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­. ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ – ­­ ­­ ­­­­. ­­ ­­­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­.
1893 ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­.
­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­, 1918 ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­. 1956 ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­ (­­­­). ­ ­­­­­ 1963 ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­, 1969 ­ – ­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­­­ .
B0005